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Food processing is the transformation of agricultural products into food or one form of food into alternative forms. Primary food processing includes most edible foods, and secondary food processing include foods like bread. Tertiary food process includes ready to eat foods
Primary food processing turns agricultural products, like raw wheat kernels into eatable forms. This class includes ingredients that are created by drying, threshing, winnowing, and edge grain, etc. Contamination and spoilage will cause health threats. However, several processes contribute to improved food safety and longer shelf life before the food spoils. Commercial food processing uses control systems such as hazard analysis and failure mode and effects to reduce the risk of harm.
Baking bread is an example of secondary food processing. Secondary food processing is an everyday method of making food from ingredients that are able to use. Baking bread, in a small bakery, or in a large factory, is an example of secondary food processing. Most of the secondary food processing methods known to humans are commonly described as cooking methods.
Tertiary food processing is referred to as processed foods. These are ready-to-eat or heat-and-serve foods, such as dinners and re-heated airline meals.
Common food processing techniques include:
- Removal of unwanted outer layers, such as peeling or the skinning
- Chopping or slicing
- Mincing and macerating
- Liquefaction, such as to produce fruit juice
- Cooking, by ways like baking, boiling, broiling, frying, steaming, or cooking
Confectionery is the art of creating confections that are used in making sugar and carbohydrates. Types of confectionery:
Bakers’ confectionery includes: Bakers’ confections are sweet foods that feature flour as a main ingredient and are baked. Major classes are cakes, sweet pastries, doughnuts, and cookies. In the Middle East and Asia, flour-based confections predominate.
Sugar confectionery includes: candies, chocolates, gum, bubble gum etc.
Finally, confections, especially commercial ones, are sweetened by a variety of syrups obtained by hydrolysis of starch. These sweeteners include all types of corn syrup
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Indian Food Industry:
India ranks as the second-largest producer of Fruits and Vegetables in the world. The Indian farm market is amongst the most important and quickest growing markets within the world. India has earned the highest position in milk production globally. India is the second-largest producer of food grains globally. India homes varied types of cereals and pulses that are mostly consumed domestically. The Indian food trade is poised for large growth, increasing its contribution to world food trade per annum. The online food ordering business is witnessing tremendous growth. India witnesses wastage in cereals majorly due to lack of storage infrastructure and grain handling mechanism. To reduce this wastage India needs adequate infrastructure, processing facilities, and research & development in this area. The benefits of the food process include the preservation, distribution, and marketing of food, protection from pathogenic microbes and toxic substances, year-round availability of many food items, and ease of preparation by the consumer. On the other hand, food processing can lower the nutritional value of foods, and processed foods may include additives (such as colorings, flavorings, and preservatives) that may have adverse health effects.